A stimulant medication used in clinical research is Troparil (also known as (-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane, WIN 35,065-2, or β-CPT). Troparil is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) dependent on phenyltropane and is derived from methylecgonidine.As a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Troparil is a few times more powerful than cocaine, but is less potent as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and has a length that is many times longer, since the phenyl ring is directly linked by a non-hydrolyzable carbon-carbon bond to the tropane ring. The absence of an ester bond eliminates the drug’s local anesthetic action, so Troparil is a pure stimulant. Troparil is also significantly less cardiotoxic than cocaine because of this change in activity. The most widely used type of troparil is tartrate salt, but there are also available hydrochloride and naphthalenedisulfonate salts, as well as a free base.